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    吉林省秸稈綜合利用產業化發展探究

    時間:2016-12-14 來源:未知 作者:陳賽楠 本文字數:3096字
      摘 要
      
      本論文以吉林省中部糧食主產區為研究區域,通過查閱文獻、問卷調查、實地調研、召開企業座談會及案例分析等研究途徑,重點論述了吉林省玉米秸稈綜合利用產業現狀及存在問題,構建了吉林省秸稈綜合利用產業化的主要模式,分析了吉林省秸稈綜合利用產業化典型案例的實施效果,最后提出了促進秸稈綜合利用產業發展的政策與建議。取得的主要研究結果概要如下:
      
      1.吉林省秸稈資源利用潛力大,2013 年吉林省實際可收集利用的秸稈資源總量約3950 萬噸,秸稈資源密度達到 10.9 噸/公頃,為全國最高;2013 年秸稈利用率為 75.2%,低于全國平均水平 1.9 個百分點,利用量約 2970 萬噸。在秸稈綜合利用產業發展方面,通過 62 戶填報調查問卷的企業分析,秸稈成型燃料企業占 57.1%;秸稈直燃發電企業占17.5%;秸稈有機肥企業占 7.9%;秸稈飼料企業占 6.3%;秸稈板材、秸稈沼氣企業分別占3.2%;秸稈環保融雪劑、秸稈食用菌基料、秸稈造紙企業分別占 1.6%.吉林省秸稈綜合利用尚未形成大規模產業化發展的格局,存在的問題主要有:產業規模小、利用水平低、科技支撐不足、收儲運體系不完善、缺少政策資金支持。
      
      2.按照循環利用、因地制宜、突出重點、統籌城鄉的原則,設計提出了吉林省玉米秸稈綜合利用產業農業化、原料化、能源化三種主要發展模式,確定了應重點發展秸稈-造紙-肥料/飼料模式、秸稈-化工產品-肥料模式、秸稈-生物天然氣-肥料模式,適當補充秸稈-成型燃料等其它模式。
      
      3. 通過對吉林省近期實施的 6 個秸稈綜合利用產業化典型案例(項目)進行了對比分析,6 個項目各有優長,突出表現在秸稈-造紙-肥料/飼料模式秸稈利用量大、產業鏈長、經濟效益和社會效益較好,但技術難度高,投資和環境影響較大,不利于推廣;而秸稈-成型燃料模式經濟效益和社會效益一般,但投資小、技術簡單、環境影響小,易于推廣。
      
      4.促進吉林省秸稈綜合利用產業發展的政策建議主要有:加強監督管理、制定扶持政策、規范行業發展、完善技術保障、建設收儲運體系、加快項目建設、做好宣傳推廣等七個方面。
      
      關鍵詞:秸稈,綜合利用,產業模式,吉林省


      Abstract
      
      Jilin is a main agricultural province in China, in which the crops straw especially corn1and the comprehensive utilization is bad developed. Straw burned and discarded in field is acommon situation, which caused serious waste of the resource and air pollution. So the furtherstudy on industrial development pattern of straw comprehensive utilization, as well as thedetermination of key direction and the progress of Industry, can bear long-term strategicsignificance and enormous practical effect in decreasing the environmental pollution, increasingthe economic benefit and cultivating new points of economic growth.
      
      Based on the research approach of the consulting document, questionnaire survey, spotinvestigation, enterprises forum and case analysis, in main grain production area of central Jilin,the thesis mainly discussed the straw comprehensive utilization industry and major problems,then constructed the main models of straw comprehensive utilization industrialization in Jilinprovince, meanwhile analyzed the implementation effects in six typical cases, finally proposedthe policies and suggestions to promote the development of the straw comprehensive utilizationindustry. The result outlines are followed:
      
      1. The use of straw resources has great potential in Jilin province, the total quantity about3950 million tons and 10.9 ton per hectare by 2013, which had the highest level of China. Thestraw utilization ratio and amount was 75.2% and 2970 million tons respectively, but the ratiowas lower than the national average by 1.9 percentage points. Through the analysis on 62enterprises, the straw was utilized for bar-formed fuel(57.1%),combustion generation(17.5%),organic fertilizer(7.9%), feed(6.3%), plate(3.2%), biogas(3.2%), snow-melting agent ofenvironmental protection type(1.6%), edible fungi base material(1.6%) and papermaking(1.6%)mainly. The industry development of straw comprehensive utilization still existted someproblems, not formed the pattern of large industrialization and long-term mechanism of socialconsensus yet .
      
      2. The paper designed the agriculturalization,raw change and energy regeneration modelsfor corn straw comprehensive utilization industry, according to the principles of recycling, localconditions, highlighting the emphasis and overall urban and rural. And we determined thestraw-papermaking-fertilizer/feed model, straw-chemical products-fertilizer model andstraw-biological gas-fertilizer model mainly, meanwhile, the straw-formed fuel modelshould be adequate supplemented.
      
      3.Six typical cases models have each excellences, among which thestraw-papermaking-fertilizer/feed model and the straw-formed fuel model are models withgreat prospect. We discuss the concrete manifestation from some aspects listed below: thestraw-papermaking-fertilizer/feed model has good economic and social benefit, large strawutilization, long industry chain, but large investment, high technology, big environmental impactand extension difficult; while the straw-formed fuel model are relative to that.
      
      4. At last, the paper put forward some countermeasures. We should strengthen thesupervision and management. The formulation of support policy should be clarified. Then weshould standardize the development in this industry. Technology support should be perfected todevelop and extend applicable technique and equipment. The system of straw storage andtransportation should be also established as soon as possible. At the same time, we shoulddevelope some project constructions and increase the broadcasting and extension.
      
      Key word: Straw, Comprehensive Utilization, Industry Model, Jilin Province


      目 錄
      
      第一章 緒論
      
      1.1 研究的背景及意義
      
      1.2 國內外秸稈綜合利用產業發展現狀
      
      1.3 研究內容
      
      1.4 技術路線
      
      1.5 擬解決的關鍵問題
      
      1.6 創新點
      
      第二章 吉林省秸稈綜合利用產業現狀及存在的問題
      
      2.1 吉林省秸稈資源現狀
      
      2.2 吉林省秸稈綜合利用及產業發展現狀
      
      2.3 吉林省支持秸稈綜合利用產業發展的政策措施
      
      2.4 吉林省秸稈利用產業發展中存在的問題
      
      第三章 吉林省秸稈綜合利用產業發展模式設計
      
      3.1 “十三五”吉林省秸稈綜合利用產業發展趨勢分析
      
      3.2 循環經濟理論下秸稈綜合利用產業發展模式
      
      3.3 吉林省秸稈綜合利用產業發展模式遵循的原則
      
      3.4 吉林省秸稈綜合利用產業發展模式
      
      第四章 吉林省秸稈綜合利用產業化典型案例分析
      
      4.1 典型案例實施情況
      
      4.2 典型案例效益對比分析
      
      第五章 吉林省秸稈綜合利用產業發展的政策建議
      
      5.1 加強監督管理
      
      5.2 制定扶持政策
      
      5.3 規范行業發展
      
      5.4 完善技術保障
      
      5.5 建立收儲運體系
      
      5.6 加快項目建設
      
      5.7 做好宣傳推廣
      
      第六章 結論及展望
      
      6.1 結論
      
      6.2 展望
      
      參考文獻
      
      致 謝
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