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    中國農村協商民主發展困境探究

    時間:2016-09-01 來源:未知 作者:學術堂 本文字數:4322字

      目 錄

      摘 要

      Abstract

      第一章 緒論

      一、論文選題的理由或意義

      二、關于該課題的研究綜述

      (一)國外研究現狀

      (二)國內研究現狀

      三、論文的結構、創新與不足之處

      (一)論文的結構

      (二)論文的創新及不足

      第二章 鄉村協商民主理論概述

      一、鄉村協商民主理論概述

      (一)協商民主

      (二)鄉村協商民主

      二、鄉村協商民主的價值分析

      (一)協商民主的價值分析

      (二)協商民主是我國鄉村民主建設的有效途徑

      第三章 鄉村協商民主發展現狀與特征分析

      一、從民主懇談和村務公開談鄉村協商民主發展現狀

      (一)民主懇談會--以浙江溫嶺為例

      (二)村務公開

      二、我國鄉村協商民主發展的特征

      (一)發展受制度問題影響明顯

      (二)鄉村經濟發展影響著鄉村協商民主參與主體的民主參與需求

      (三)政治文化大環境和參與主體的政治文化素養問題

      第四章 鄉村協商民主發展的影響因素分類

      一、政治因素

      (一)村民自治制度的制度基礎

      (二)鄉村協商民主選舉過程中的政治權利導向

      二、經濟因素

      (一)經濟發展與鄉村協商民主主體的獨立性的關系

      (二)經濟發展與鄉村協商民主主體的平等性關系

      三、文化因素

      (一)傳統的思想文化觀念

      (二)農民的文化程度和民主素養

      第五章 我國鄉村協商民主建設中的影響因素利弊探究

      一、影響因素與鄉村協商民主的價值取向存在一致性

      (一)政治民主化為鄉村協商民主提供合法性基礎

      (二)經濟發展為鄉村協商民主提供物質基礎

      (三)農民參與為鄉村協商民主提供基本保證

      二、影響因素與鄉村協商民主建設之間存在張力

      (一)政治上存在非制度性張力

      (二)經濟上存在階層分化與經濟壓力

      (三)文化上存在協商意識淡薄和自組織羸弱

      第六章 我國鄉村治理中協商民主的路徑探究

      一、鄉村治理中協商民主的政治路徑探究

      (一)選舉民主為主、協商民主為輔

      (二)推動鄉村基層自治,加強基層協商民主建設

      (三)探索制度化的道路:協商方式的改變

      二、鄉村治理中協商民主的文化路徑探究

      (一)重塑鄉村行政文化,培養協商精神

      (二)逐步培育村民的協商民主意識

      (三)市民社會的發展與協商文化的培育

      三、鄉村協商民主建設的經濟路徑探究

      (一)推動農村發展,增加社會資本

      (二)推動農村改革,賦予農民更多的財產權

      結語

      參考文獻

        致謝
     

      摘 要

      20 世紀晚期,民主選舉的弊端和局限性開始逐漸顯現。協商民主這一新型的民主元素,作為對選舉民主的補充和修正,被西方學者們廣泛熱議和研究,也被逐漸應用于西方政治制度之中。由于協商民主與中國民主政治有著很好的契合度,在中國有著豐富的發展所需的政治和社會資源,也被引入到中國民主發展之中,在基層民主法治建設和鄉村治理中發揮著不可小覷的作用,既彌補了民主選舉中多數原則的負面效應,也為中國民主發展走上臺階提供了新方法和新視野。協商民主的目的是經由理性的協商對話,平衡利益多元化,實現公民有序的政治參與。

      現代協商民主則是在我國已有的民主基礎上,結合我國國情和社會主義初級階段的特性,自上而下延伸到民主治理的所有領域,有民主選舉的地方,就有協商民主。協商民主和選舉民主相輔相成,也標志著傳統民主的跨越式轉變:實現形式的單一性到多樣性,民主主體權利的壟斷性到開放性,民主監督的局限性到非局限性。

      由于我國國情的特殊性,鄉村在我國有著廣大的區域,協商民主在我國鄉村民主建設中成為一個活躍的積極因素,在我國鄉村民主建設中有著很好的本土資源,猶如為鄉村民主建設注入了新鮮血液。同時鄉村的民主發展也顯現出新狀況:一方面鄉村的民主發展亟需協商民主開辟新路徑,協商民主發展被重視;另一方面協商民主在鄉村民主治理中受到諸多因素的影響,發展和水平提升遇到挑戰。

      本文通過文獻研究,以浙江溫嶺民主懇談和村務公開為切入點,通過對其發展現狀及存在的問題的研究,總結我國鄉村協商民主的發展現狀、特征、已取得的成就和存在的問題,挖掘發展現狀背后的原因、機制。對我國鄉村協商民主發展中存在的政治、經濟和文化因素進行剖析,深入研究這三類因素對我國鄉村協商民主發展的影響,也是本文的重點。

      作為論文的總結,本文在最后一章探究了我國鄉村治理中協商民主的發展路徑,力圖將協商民主在鄉村發展遇到的障礙理出清晰脈絡,針對這些影響因素提出改進途徑和政策建議。相對應鄉村協商民主發展的影響因素,本文對其發展路徑的探究也是從政治、經濟和文化的角度展開,在政治方面提出了選舉民主為主、協商民主為輔,推動鄉村基層自治、加強基層協商民主建設和協商民主制度化的建議;在經濟方面提出了推動農村發展、增加社會資本和推動農村改革、賦予農民更多財產權的建議;在文化方面提出了重塑鄉村行政文化、培養協商精神,培養村民協商民主意識和發展市民社會和培育協商文化的建議。力圖為協商民主在我國鄉村民主的發展道路厘清影響因素和障礙,為其科學健康發展貢獻政策建議。

      關鍵詞:鄉村 協商民主 影響因素

      Abstract

      Late 20th century, the drawbacks and limitations of democratic elections begin gradually.

      As a new elements of democracy and the additions and amendments to electoral democracy,deliberative democracy has been studying and debating extensively by Western scholars, andalso been increasingly used among the Western political system. Because of deliberativedemocracy with Chinese Democracy has a very good fit, deliberative democracy has richpolitical and social resources that it needed for development in China and been introduced to thedevelopment of democracy in China. Deliberative democracy plays an underestimated role ingrassroots democracy and the rule of law and governance in rural .It can make up the negativeeffects of the majority principles in democratic elections and provide a new approach and newvision for the development of democracy in China.

      The purpose of deliberative democracy is dialoguing through rational negotiation, balancingthe interests of diverse and achieving an orderly political participation of citizens. Deliberativedemocracy practice in China has long been apparent. The People's Political ConsultativeConference, which had been set up at the beginning of the founding of China, is a powerful proof.

      On the basis of existing democracy in our country, modern deliberative democracy has combinedwith China's national conditions and characteristics of the primary stage of socialism andextended to all areas of democratic governance from top to bottom. Where there is a democraticelection where there is deliberative democracy. Deliberative democracy and electoral democracyare mutually reinforcing, also marks the transition of traditional democratic leap: the maindemocratic pluralism from the particularity to diversify, the rights of democratic body frommonopoly to open, democratic supervision from the limitations to the non-limiting.

      Due to the special nature of our country, and the village in China has a vast area,deliberative democracy has become a positive factor in the country active democracy-building inour country. It has good local resources in rural democracy-building in our country, like injectingfresh blood to the construction of rural democracy. At the same time the development of ruraldemocracy is also showing a new situation: on the one hand the democratic development of ruralareas need to open up new paths of deliberative democracy, and deliberative democracydevelopment being taken seriously; on the other, deliberative democracy is affected by manyfactors in democratic governance in the country, the promotion of its development andpromotion has been challenged.

      Through literature research, this paper takes Zhejiang Wenling democratic forum andvillage affairs publicity as a starting point, through study of its development status and problems,summarizes the current development of rural deliberative democracy, characteristics, theachievements and problems, excavating causes and mechanisms behind the development status.

      Dissect political, economic and cultural factors that exist in the development of rural deliberativedemocracy, and in-depth studying of these three factors on the development of rural deliberativedemocracy which is the focus of this paper. As a summary of the paper, in the last chapter, thispaper explores the development of rural governance negotiation path of democracy, trying to sortout a clear context for the obstacles that deliberative democracy has encountered in ruraldevelopment, and propose ways to improve and policy recommendations for these factors.

      Corresponding the influence factors of rural development deliberative democracy, this articleunfolding political, economic and cultural perspective, explores its development path. On thepolitical front ,this article proposes making up mainly of electoral democracy, deliberativedemocracy, giving autonomy to promote the rural grass-roots level to strengthen the constructionof deliberative democracy and deliberative democracy institutionalized proposal; On theeconomy front ,this article proposes promoting rural development, increasing social capital andpromoting rural reforms, giving farmers more property; on the cultural front, this article proposesreshaping rural administrative culture, cultivating the spirit of negotiation and the villagerscultivates' awareness of deliberative democracy and development of civil society and fosteringcultural negotiation . This paper tries to negotiate a democratic path of development in China'srural democracy and clarifies the factors and obstacles, and contributes policies andrecommendations for its healthy and scientific development.

      Key words: rural, deliberative democracy, influence factorsClassification: D638


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